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Home > News > The working principle of activation furnace in activated carbon production equipment

The working principle of activation furnace in activated carbon production equipment


C+2H2O 2H2+CO2-18kcal ①
C+H2O H2+CO-31kcal ②
CO2+C 2CO-41kcal ③
The above three chemical reactions are all endothermic reactions, that is, as the activation reaction proceeds, the temperature of the activation reaction zone of the Activated Carbon Activation Furnace will gradually decrease. If the temperature of the activation zone is lower than 800°C, the above activation reaction will not proceed normally, so In the activation reaction area of the Activation Furnace, part of the air and the coal gas generated by the activation need to be introduced to supplement heat at the same time, or an external heating source is supplemented to ensure the activation temperature of the activation reaction area of the activation furnace.
The activation reaction belongs to the multiphase reaction of the gas-solid phase system. The activation process includes two processes, physical and chemical. The whole process includes the diffusion of the activator in the gas phase to the outer surface of the carbonized material, the diffusion and activation of the activator to the inner surface of the carbonized material. The agent is adsorbed by the inner and outer surfaces of the carbonized material, the surface of the carbonized material undergoes a gasification reaction to produce intermediate products (surface complexes), the intermediate products are decomposed into reaction products, the reaction products are desorbed, and the desorbed reaction products move from the inner surface of the carbonized material to The over-activation reaction such as external surface diffusion finally achieves the purpose of activation and pore formation through the following three stages.
Activated carbon furnace
Activated carbon activation furnace

The first stage: the opening of pores formed during carbonization but blocked by disordered carbon atoms and heteroatoms, that is, at high temperatures, the activated gas first reacts with disordered carbon atoms and heteroatoms.

The second stage: The opened pores continue to expand, penetrate and develop in depth. The carbon atoms at the edges of the pores are easy to react with the activated gas because of their unsaturated structure, which causes the pores to expand and develop in depth.

The third stage: the formation of new pores. As the activation reaction continues, new unsaturated carbon atoms or active sites are exposed on the surface of the crystallites, so these new active sites can react with other molecules of the activated gas. This uneven burning of the crystallite surface continuously leads to the formation of new pores.

The main operating conditions for process control of the activation furnace include activation temperature, activation time, flow and temperature of the activator, feed rate, and oxygen content in the activation furnace.

Crushing and screening equipment

The carbonized material is crushed and screened, and qualified carbon particles are screened as the activation raw material. The too coarse carbon particles are returned to the crushing and screening, and the too fine carbon particles are returned as fuel. The qualified carbon particles are lifted from the bucket elevator to the top of the activation furnace and added to the furnace The carbon is added slowly by the gravity of the carbonized material. The carbon is added to the furnace of the activation furnace at regular intervals and reacts with the superheated steam. The carbon is heated and dried by the steam during the gradual descending process to achieve activation, and finally cooled from the bottom The discharge port is discharged at intervals. The steam is preheated to 300~400℃ and sent to the activation tube as the activation medium. It flows co-currently with the carbonized material from top to bottom, and continuously contacts the carbon particles during the flow process. After a series of activation reactions, it burns in the lower part of the activation tube. The lost carbon turns into water gas. The water gas and activated carbon enter the cooling section together and are separated in the separation tube, and are sent from the lower connecting flue to the bottom activation tube for combustion. The secondary air tube sucks in air to meet the combustion needs, and the combustion produces The high temperature flue gas through the regenerator transfers heat to the grid array for heat exchange, maintains the furnace temperature, and enables the activation reaction to continue.

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